Risk Projection for Time-to-event Outcome Leveraging Summary Statistics With Source Individual-level Data.
Predicting risks of chronic diseases has become increasingly important in clinical practice. When a prediction model is developed in a cohort, there is a great interest to apply the model to other cohorts. Due to potential discrepancy in baseline disease incidences between different cohorts and shifts in patient composition, the risk predicted by the model built in the source cohort often under- or over-estimates the risk in a new cohort. In this article, we assume the relative risks of predictors are the same between the two cohorts, and propose a novel weighted estimating equation approach to re-calibrating the projected risk for the targeted population through updating the baseline risk. The recalibration leverages the knowledge about survival probabilities for the disease of interest and competing events, and summary information of risk factors from the target population. We establish the consistency and asymptotic normality of the proposed estimators. Extensive simulation demonstrate that the proposed estimators are robust, even if the risk factor distributions differ between the source and target populations, and gain efficiency if they are the same, as long as the information from the target is precise. The method is illustrated with a recalibration of colorectal cancer prediction model.
- Hsu L
- Zheng J
- Zheng Y