Prospective comparison of restriction spectrum imaging and non-invasive biomarkers to predict upgrading on active surveillance prostate biopsy.


Protocol-based active surveillance (AS) biopsies have led to poor compliance. To move to risk-based protocols, more accurate imaging biomarkers are needed to predict upgrading on AS prostate biopsy. We compared restriction spectrum imaging (RSI-MRI) generated signal maps as a biomarker to other available non-invasive biomarkers to predict upgrading or reclassification on an AS biopsy.

We prospectively enrolled men on prostate cancer AS undergoing repeat biopsy from January 2016 to June 2019 to obtain an MRI and biomarkers to predict upgrading. Subjects underwent a prostate multiparametric MRI and a short duration, diffusion-weighted enhanced MRI called RSI to generate a restricted signal map along with evaluation of 30 biomarkers (14 clinico-epidemiologic features, 9 molecular biomarkers, and 7 radiologic-associated features). Our primary outcome was upgrading or reclassification on subsequent AS prostate biopsy. Statistical analysis included operating characteristic improvement using AUROC and AUPRC.

The individual biomarker with the highest area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was RSI-MRI (AUC = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.71-0.96). The best non-imaging biomarker was prostate volume-corrected Prostate Health Index density (PHI, AUC = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.53-0.82). Non-imaging biomarkers had a negligible effect on predicting upgrading at the next biopsy but did improve predictions of overall time to progression in AS.

RSI-MRI, PIRADS, and PHI could improve the predictive ability to detect upgrading in AS. The strongest predictor of clinically significant prostate cancer on AS biopsy was RSI-MRI signal output.

  • Basasie B
  • Boutros PC
  • Chan DW
  • Chinnaiyan AM
  • Clarke GD
  • Eng SE
  • John Semmes O
  • Johnson-Pais TL
  • Lam A
  • Leach RJ
  • Liss MA
  • Siddiqui J
  • Sokoll LJ
  • Sunnapwar AG
  • Thompson IM
  • Tosoian JJ
  • Troyer DA
PubMed ID
Appears In
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis, 2022