Roles and Regulations of TET Enzymes in Solid Tumors.
The mechanisms governing the methylome profile of tumor suppressors and oncogenes have expanded with the discovery of oxidized states of 5-methylcytosine (5mC). Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes are a family of dioxygenases that iteratively catalyze 5mC oxidation and promote cytosine demethylation, thereby creating a dynamic global and local methylation landscape. While the catalytic function of TET enzymes during stem cell differentiation and development have been well studied, less is known about the multifaceted roles of TET enzymes during carcinogenesis. This review outlines several tiers of TET regulation and overviews how TET deregulation promotes a cancer phenotype. Defining the tissue-specific and context-dependent roles of TET enzymes will deepen our understanding of the epigenetic perturbations that promote or inhibit carcinogenesis.
- Bray JK
- Dawlaty MM
- Maitra A
- Verma A