Integrated analyses of proteins and their glycans in a magnetic bead-based multiplex assay format.
Well-annotated clinical samples are valuable resources for biomarker discovery and validation. Multiplex and integrated methods that simultaneously measure multiple analytes and generate integrated information about these analytes from a single measurement are desirable because these methods help conserve precious samples. We developed a magnetic bead-based system for multiplex and integrated glycoprotein quantification by immunoassays and glycan detection by lectin immunosorbent assays (LISAs).
Magnetic beads coupled with antibodies were used for capturing proteins of interest. Biotinylated antibodies in combination with streptavidin-labeled phycoerythrin were used for protein quantification. In the LISAs, biotinylated detection antibodies were replaced by biotinylated lectins for glycan detection.
Using tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 1 (TIMP-1), tissue plasminogen activator, membrane metallo-endopeptidase, and dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4) as models, we found that the multiplex integrated system was comparable to single immunoassays in protein quantification and LISAs in glycan detection. The merits of this system were demonstrated when applied to well-annotated prostate cancer tissues for validation of biomarkers in aggressive prostate cancer. Because of the system's multiplex ability, we used only 300 ng of tissue protein for the integrated detection of glycans in these proteins. Fucosylated TIMP-1 and DPP-4 offered improved performance over the proteins in distinguishing aggressive and nonaggressive prostate cancer.
The multiplex and integrated system conserves samples and is a useful tool for validation of glycoproteins and their glycoforms as biomarkers.
- Chan DW
- Chen J
- Chiu H
- Li D
- Zhang H