Altered expression and localization of creatine kinase B, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F, and high mobility group box 1 protein in the nuclear matrix associated with colon cancer.


Identification of biomarkers could lead to the development of effective screening tests for colorectal cancer. A previous study from our laboratory showed specific alterations of nuclear structure in colon cancer. In an effort to characterize these biomarkers, protein spots were selected from separations made by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, which were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The sequences obtained from the isolated spots revealed that they have close similarity to creatine kinase B (CKB) isoforms, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein F (hnRNP F) and high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) isoforms. To determine the expression of these proteins in colon cancer, expression was studied in 9 tumor and matched adjacent normal pairs, 5 donor colons, 16 polyps, 4 metastatic liver lesions and matched adjacent normal pairs, and 3 liver donors. CKB and hnRNP F were expressed in 78% and 89% of colon tumors, respectively. hnRNP F had a higher frequency of expression than CKB in premalignant polyps. With the establishment of differential expression of the proteins in colon cancer, their subcellular localization was analyzed. The subcellular fractions studied both showed high protein levels of hnRNP F in colon tumors compared with normal colon tissues. Surprisingly, subcellular levels of CKB were decreased in colon tumors, suggesting that the observed high CKB levels in nuclear matrix extracts are caused by the enhanced localization of CKB to the nuclear matrix during colon tumorigenesis. These results suggest an involvement of hnRNP F and CKB in colorectal cancer. Additionally, they suggest that hnRNP F is a potential marker for colorectal cancer progression.


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  • Balasubramani M
  • Day BW
  • Getzenberg RH
  • Schoen RE
PubMed ID
Appears In
Cancer Res, 2006, 66 (2)