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Molecular Imaging of Colorectal Tumors by Targeting Colon Cancer Secreted Protein-2 (CCSP-2).

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Neoplasia. 2017 Oct 19 (10).

A versatile biomarker for detecting colonic adenoma and colon cancer has yet to be developed. Colon cancer secreted protein-2 (CCSP-2) is a protein specifically expressed and secreted in colon adenomas and cancers. We developed a fluorescent imaging method based on CCSP-2 targeting for a more sensitive and specific detection of colorectal tumors. CCSP-2 expression was evaluated in human colon adenoma and colorectal specimens. Anti-CCSP-2 antibody was labeled with a near-infrared fluorescent dye, FPR-675, and molecular imaging of surgical human colorectal tumors was performed. Immunohistochemistry identified CCSP-2 expression in 87.0% of colorectal cancer specimens and 89.5% of colon adenoma specimens. Fluorescence imaging of surgical human colon specimens after spraying treatment with the probe permitted a clear distinction of cancer from paired normal colon tissue (target-to-background ratio, 4.09±0.42; P<.001). CCSP-2 targeting imaging was also evaluated in patient-derived colon cancer xenograft mouse and liver metastasis murine models. CCSP-2-positive colon cancer xenografts and liver metastases were visualized by near-infrared fluorescence imaging after intravenous injection of the probe, which showed significantly higher fluorescence. Our results show that CCSP-2 is a promising marker for colorectal tumor detection in clinical settings and that a CCSP-2-targeting molecular imaging strategy might improve the diagnosis of colorectal tumors in metastatic or recurrent cancers and aid in early colonoscopic detection of premalignant lesions.

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