Tumor-associated stromal cells differ from normal gland-associated stromal cells in gene expression. Genes up-regulated in these stromal cells are potential cancer biomarkers, especially those encoding secreted or extracellular proteins. These proteins might be detected in urine. CD90/THY1 is one such candidate. A clinical test based on urinary CD90 would be useful in reducing the number of unnecessary biopsies done because of abnormal serum PSA and/or DRE finding. Elevated CD90 protein is found in tumor tissue and urine.
To develop multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) proteomics to measure CD90 in urine samples of pre-op(erative) prostate cancer, biopsy negative, post-op, pre-op bladder cancer, and non-cancer. MRM uses triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and synthetic isotopically labeled CD90 signature peptides for detection at the fmol level.
Genomic (Affymetrix GeneChip) analysis of sorted cancer cells and their normal counterpart (CD26+ prostate cancer vs. CD26+ luminal; CD90+ tumor-associated stromal vs. CD49a+ stromal; CD9+ bladder cancer vs. CD9+ superficial urothelial) to identify up-regulated genes encoding secreted or extracellular proteins.
Proteomic analysis based on mass spectrometry to measure urinary levels of the protein candidates identified.
Since CD90 is expressed by many other cell types (e.g., T cells), its prostate cancer specificity as a urinary marker needs to be rigorously tested.
There are currently no biomarkers annotated for this protocol.
The National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Prevention has released a new funding opportunity to solicit organ-specific applications for Biomarker Developmental Laboratories (BDLs), one of the four scientific units of the recently funded Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). The EDRN is a national infrastructure funded to discover, develop, and validate biomarkers for risk assessment, detection, and molecular diagnosis and prognosis of early cancer. BDLs are responsible for the discovery, development, characterization, and testing of new, or the refinement of existing, biomarkers and biomarker assays for risk assessment, detection, and molecular diagnosis and prognosis of cancers.
The existing BDLs are primarily focused on ovary and gastrointestinal cancers. The proposed BDLs (to be supported under this funding opportunity) should be focused on one or more of the following cancers: breast, prostate and other genitourinary organs, or lung. In addition, cancers with rapidly rising incidence rates, e.g., endometrial, hepatocellular, kidney, thyroid, oropharyngeal cancers, and/or cancers with unique etiology, e.g., mesothelioma, will be considered.
The newly funded units of the Early Detection Research Network will be announced later in April. Successful applicants have already been notified. Those researchers who were not successful during the last round of applications are encouraged to apply to this opportunity.