Nab-Paclitaxel, Capecitabine, and Radiation Therapy After Induction Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Locally Advanced and Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer: Phase 1 Trial and Imaging-based Biomarker Validation.


Effective consolidative chemoradiation (CRT) regimens are lacking. In this phase 1 trial, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of nab-paclitaxel, capecitabine, and radiation therapy after induction chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced and borderline-resectable pancreatic cancer (LAPC and BRPC). Also, we evaluated a computed tomography (CT)-based biomarker of response.

Eligible patients had pathologically confirmed pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, underwent computed tomography-imaging, received a diagnosis of LAPC or BRPC, and received induction chemotherapy. Standard 3 + 3 study design was used, with 3 escalating nab-paclitaxel dose levels (50, 75, and 100 mg/m<sup>2</sup>) with concurrent capecitabine and RT in cohort sizes of 3 starting at the lowest dose. Dose limiting toxicity was defined as grade 3 or higher toxicity. Patients were restaged 4 to 6 weeks post-CRT completion, and surgical resection was offered to those with stable/responsive disease. We scored the tumor interface response (IR) postchemotherapy and post-CRT into type I (remained/became more defined) and type II (became less defined). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) from time of CRT were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. P ≤ .05 was considered significant.

Twenty-three patients started and finished on protocol (LAPC = 14, BRPC = 9). No grade 3 and 4 toxicities were reported in level 1 (n = 3) or level 2 (n = 3) initial groups. Two patients in the initial level 3 group developed dose limiting toxicity, establishing level 2 dose as the maximal tolerated dose. Level 2 group was expanded for additional 15 patients (for a total of 23 on trial), 5 of whom developed grade 3 toxicities. Seven patients underwent surgical resection. Median OS and PFS were 21.2 and 8.1 months, respectively. Type I IR was associated with better OS (P = .004) and PFS (P = .03) compared with type II IR.

We established the maximum tolerated dose for nab-paclitaxel in a consolidative CRT regimen for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Preliminary efficacy results warrant phase 2 trial evaluation. IR may be used for personalized treatment.

  • Aliru M
  • Bagereka P
  • Bhosale P
  • Crane CH
  • Das P
  • Holliday EB
  • Ikoma N
  • Jacobson G
  • Javle M
  • Katz MH
  • Kim M
  • Koay EJ
  • Koong AC
  • Krishnan S
  • Lee JE
  • Ludmir EB
  • Minsky BD
  • Overman M
  • Pant S
  • Rodriguez MJ
  • Smith GL
  • Tamm E
  • Taniguchi CM
  • Tzeng CW
  • Van Wieren A
  • Varadhachary G
  • Wang H
  • Wang X
  • Wolff RA
  • Zaid M
PubMed ID
Appears In
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys, 2022, 114 (3)