Proteomic signatures of 16 major types of human cancer reveal universal and cancer-type-specific proteins for the identification of potential therapeutic targets.

Proteomic characterization of cancers is essential for a comprehensive understanding of key molecular aberrations. However, proteomic profiling of a large cohort of cancer tissues is often limited by the conventional approaches.

We present a proteomic landscape of 16 major types of human cancer, based on the analysis of 126 treatment-naïve primary tumor tissues, 94 tumor-matched normal adjacent tissues, and 12 normal tissues, using mass spectrometry-based data-independent acquisition approach.

In our study, a total of 8527 proteins were mapped to brain, head and neck, breast, lung (both small cell and non-small cell lung cancers), esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, colon, kidney, bladder, prostate, uterus and ovary cancers, including 2458 tissue-enriched proteins. Our DIA-based proteomic approach has characterized major human cancers and identified universally expressed proteins as well as tissue-type-specific and cancer-type-specific proteins. In addition, 1139 therapeutic targetable proteins and 21 cancer/testis (CT) antigens were observed.

Our discoveries not only advance our understanding of human cancers, but also have implications for the design of future large-scale cancer proteomic studies to assist the development of diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets in multiple cancers.

Cao L, Chan DW, Chen SY, Cho KC, Dong M, Eguez RV, Gabrielson E, Hu Y, Höti N, Li QK, Lih TM, Pan J, Zhang H, Zhou Y

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J Hematol Oncol, 2020, 13 (1)

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