Multi-Window CT Based Radiological Traits for Improving Early Detection in Lung Cancer Screening.

Evaluate ability of radiological semantic traits assessed on multi-window computed tomography (CT) to predict lung cancer risk.

A total of 199 participants were investigated, including 60 incident lung cancers and 139 benign positive controls. Twenty lung window features and 2 mediastinal window features were extracted and scored on a point scale in three screening rounds. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association of these radiological traits with the risk of developing lung cancer. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) were computed to evaluate the best predictive model.

Combining mediastinal window-specific features with the lung window features-based model significantly improves performance compared to individual window features. Model performance is consistent both at baseline and the first follow-up scan, with an AUROC increased from 0.822 to 0.871 (<i>p</i> = 0.009) and from 0.877 to 0.917 (<i>p</i> = 0.008), respectively, for single to multi-window feature models. We also find that the multi-window CT based model showed better specificity and PPV, with PPV at the second follow-up scan improved to 0.953.

We find combining window semantic features improves model performance in identifying cancerous nodules. We also find that lung window features are more informative compared to mediastinal features in predicting malignancy.

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Cancer Manag Res, 2020, 12

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