Proteomic approaches for characterizing renal cell carcinoma.
Renal cell carcinoma is among the top 15 most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide, comprising multiple sub-histologies with distinct genomic, proteomic, and clinicopathological features. Proteomic methodologies enable the detection and quantitation of protein profiles associated with the disease state and have been explored to delineate the dysregulated cellular processes associated with renal cell carcinoma. In this review we highlight the reports that employed proteomic technologies to characterize tissue, blood, and urine samples obtained from renal cell carcinoma patients. We describe the proteomic approaches utilized and relate the results of studies in the larger context of renal cell carcinoma biology. Moreover, we discuss some unmet clinical needs and how emerging proteomic approaches can seek to address them. There has been significant progress to characterize the molecular features of renal cell carcinoma; however, despite the large-scale studies that have characterized the genomic and transcriptomic profiles, curative treatments are still elusive. Proteomics facilitates a direct evaluation of the functional modules that drive pathobiology, and the resulting protein profiles would have applications in diagnostics, patient stratification, and identification of novel therapeutic interventions.
- Clark DJ
- Zhang H