Multivariate machine learning models for prediction of pathologic response to neoadjuvant therapy in breast cancer using MRI features: a study using an independent validation set.

To determine whether a multivariate machine learning-based model using computer-extracted features of pre-treatment dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) can predict pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant therapy (NAT) in breast cancer patients.

Institutional review board approval was obtained for this retrospective study of 288 breast cancer patients at our institution who received NAT and had a pre-treatment breast MRI. A comprehensive set of 529 radiomic features was extracted from each patient's pre-treatment MRI. The patients were divided into equal groups to form a training set and an independent test set. Two multivariate machine learning models (logistic regression and a support vector machine) based on imaging features were trained to predict pCR in (a) all patients with NAT, (b) patients with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), and (c) triple-negative or human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive (TN/HER2+) patients who had NAT. The multivariate models were tested using the independent test set, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve (AUC) was calculated.

Out of the 288 patients, 64 achieved pCR. The AUC values for predicting pCR in TN/HER+ patients who received NAT were significant (0.707, 95% CI 0.582-0.833, p < 0.002).

The multivariate models based on pre-treatment MRI features were able to predict pCR in TN/HER2+ patients.

Cain EH, Harowicz MR, Marcom PK, Marks JR, Mazurowski MA, Saha A

30328048

Breast Cancer Res Treat, 2019, 173 (2)

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