Aliases:This biomarker is also known as:
- Des-gamma carboxyprothrombin,
- Prothrombin Induced by Vitamin K Absence II,
- PIVKA II,
Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is a non-functional precursor of prothrombin. Prothrombin, produced by the liver, serves a critical role in normal hemostasis. Functional prothrombin contains several gamma-carboxy-glutamic acid (Gla) residues that are produced as the result of post-translational modification of glutamic acid residues mediated by vitamin K dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase. The formation of Gla residues can be impaired in patients with vitamin K deficiency or in patients receiving oral anticoagulant therapy. DCP lacks thrombotic activity and has been shown in multiple studies to be present in the serum of patients with HCC. DCP arises from an acquired defect in the post-translational carboxylation of the pro-thrombin precursor in malignant hepatocytes.
There are no datasets associated with this biomarker.
The following organs have data associated with this biomarker…
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common solid malignancies worldwide, and its incidence in the United States is increasing. Despite advances in medical technology, the 5-year survival of patients with HCC improved minimally from 2% to 5% between 1981 and 1998. Since 90% of patients with HCC have underlying cirrhosis, patients with cirrhosis are candidates for HCC surveillance. The currently recommended surveillance tests for HCC are ultrasound evaluation of the liver (US), with or without measurement of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). These tests are inadequately sensitive for use in screening, while ultrasound is also limited by the experience of the operator and on body habitus for adequate scanning. The performance of DCP to distinguish HCC from cirrhosis was compared to that of AFP or the lens culinaris agglutinin-reactive AFP (AFP-L3) and was shown to be superior, at a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 93%.
The FDA has approved the use of DCP in a test designed to assess the risk of developing hepatocellular cancer (HCC) in patients with chronic liver disease. The test measures serum DCP levels, which can be used in conjunction with other clinical findings and imaging studies, to differentiate early HCC from cirrhosis.
- Des-gamma carboxyprothrombin can differentiate hepatocellular carcinoma from nonmalignant chronic liver disease in american patients.
- TGF-beta has paradoxical and context dependent effects on proliferation and anoikis in human colorectal cancer cell lines.
- Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma may impair the performance of biomarkers: a comparison of AFP, DCP, and AFP-L3.
- Des-gamma-carboxy (abnormal) prothrombin as a serum marker of primary hepatocellular carcinoma.