Aliases:This biomarker is also known as:
- neurokinin alpha,
- substance P,
- neurokinin 1,
- substance K,
- neurokinin 2,
- neuropeptide gamma,
- neuromedin L,
- tachykinin, precursor 1,
- neuropeptide K,
The tachykinin gene encodes four products of the tachykinin peptide hormone family, substance P and neurokinin A, as well as the related peptides, neuropeptide K and neuropeptide gamma. These active peptides are thought to function as neurotransmitters which interact with nerve receptors and smooth muscle cells. They are known to induce behavioral responses and function as vasodilators and secretagogues, and contract (directly or indirectly) many smooth muscles. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
The following organs have data associated with this biomarker…
Esophageal adenocarcinoma risk in Barrett's esophagus is increased 30- to 125- fold versus the general population. Among all Barrett's esophagus patients neoplastic progression occurs only once per 200 patient-years. Molecular markers (individual or in panel) would be useful to risk-stratify patients for more efficient surveillance endoscopy and to improve the early detection of progression.
Promoter hypermethylation of TAC1 occurs early in both major types of human esophageal carcinoma, and is a potential biomarker of poor prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Studies are ongoing.
Supporting Study Data
The following studies/protocols provide evidence supporting TAC1 indications for the Esophagus…
Barrett's Esophagus Methylation Profiles
We propose a nested case-control study of biomarkers in the setting of BE. By bringing together research institutions with large populations of patients with BE, we will perform a multi-center study of FISH and hypermethylation markers as possible prognostic factors in BE. The centers will select from their cohorts who have progressed to HGD or to adenocarcinoma of the esophagus ("progressors"), and who also donated samples prior to the development of cancer, when their histology was felt to be benign. These subjects will be compared to individuals who have been under endoscopic surveillance, but who have not progressed to HGD or EAC ("non-progressors"). Using this approach, we hope to identify promising markers for risk stratification in BE. We expect to be able to make successful application for a prospective study of markers identified in this case-control study.View more about this study
Biomarker Characteristics Summary
|Notes||Sensitivity||Specificity||Prevalence||NPV||PPV||Specific Assay Type|
|Assessment of the classification accuracy of a single marker using ROC curve analyses show AUC for HPP1, p16, and RUNX3 are all significantly greater than 0.50. For TAC1, AUC (95% confidence interval) was 0.571 (0.470, 0.673).||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A||N/A|
Additional Study-Specific Protocols
No study-specific resources defined.
No organ-specific protocols defined.
No organ-specific publications defined.
No organ-specific resources defined.
- Three-tiered risk stratification model to predict progression in Barrett's esophagus using epigenetic and clinical features.
- Aberrant silencing of the endocrine peptide gene tachykinin-1 in gastric cancer.
- Hypermethylation of tachykinin-1 is a potential biomarker in human esophageal cancer.
- VEGF-targeting therapy for breast cancer.
- HGNC entry for TAC1 from Genenames
- KEGG entry for TAC1 from Genome.jp
- Entrez entry for TAC1 all NCBI Databasese
- Human GEO Profiles for TAC1 from NCBI GEO Profiles
- Human Geo Datasets containing term TAC1 from NCBI GEO Datasets
- GWAS Study Datasets containing gene TAC1 from GWAS
- Human Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms info for TAC1
- Human Gene(s) with 'TAC1' as Gene Name/Alias
- Human Gene RefSeq for TAC1 from NCBI
- UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry for TAC1 from Uniprot
- Human Protein RefSeq for TAC1 from NCBI
- FDA web page describing approval of TAC1
|UniProt Accession #:||P20366|
|Mutated Sites Count:||37|
|Associated Pubmed ID Count||4|
|Affected Protein Function Sites Count:||4|