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This biomarker is also known as:
  • NRP1,
  • Nel-related protein 1,
  • NEL-like protein 1,
  • Protein kinase C-binding protein NELL1,
  • nel-like 1,


NELL1 is a cytoplasmic protein that contains epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. The encoded heterotrimeric protein may be involved in cell growth regulation and differentiation.


QA State: Accepted
Type: Genomic
Short Name:


The following organs have data associated with this biomarker…



Phase: Two
QA State: Accepted


Esphageal adenocarcinoma risk in Barrett's esophagus is increased 30- to 125- fold versus the general population. Among all Barrett's esophagus patients neoplastic progression occurs only once per 200 patient-years. Molecular markers (individual or in panel) would be useful to risk-stratify patients for more efficient surveillance endoscopy and to improve the early detection of progression.

Performance Comment

Promoter hypermethylation of NELL1 occurs early during Barrett's-associated esophageal neoplastic progression, and is a potential biomarker of poor prognosis in early-stage esophageal adenocarcinoma. Studies are ongoing.

Supporting Study Data

The following studies/protocols provide evidence supporting NELL1 indications for the Esophagus…

Barrett's Esophagus Methylation Profiles

We propose a nested case-control study of biomarkers in the setting of BE. By bringing together research institutions with large populations of patients with BE, we will perform a multi-center study of FISH and hypermethylation markers as possible prognostic factors in BE. The centers will select from their cohorts who have progressed to HGD or to adenocarcinoma of the esophagus ("progressors"), and who also donated samples prior to the development of cancer, when their histology was felt to be benign. These subjects will be compared to individuals who have been under endoscopic surveillance, but who have not progressed to HGD or EAC ("non-progressors"). Using this approach, we hope to identify promising markers for risk stratification in BE. We expect to be able to make successful application for a prospective study of markers identified in this case-control study.

View more about this study
Biomarker Characteristics Summary
Notes Sensitivity Specificity Prevalence NPV PPV Specific Assay Type
Assessment of the classification accuracy of a single marker using ROC curve analyses show AUC for HPP1, p16, and RUNX3 are all significantly greater than 0.50. For NELL1, AUC (95% confidence interval) was 0.516 (0.420, 0.611). N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A
Decision Rule


Additional Study-Specific Protocols
Study-Specific Publications

No study-specific publications defined.

Study-Specific Resources

No study-specific resources defined.

Organ-Specific Protocols

No organ-specific protocols defined.

Organ-Specific Publications

No organ-specific publications defined.

Organ-Specific Resources

No organ-specific resources defined.


Mutation Statistics

Gene Name: NELL1
UniProt Accession #: Q92832
Mutated Sites Count: 532
Associated Pubmed ID Count 22
CancerDO Count 26
Affected Protein Function Sites Count: 5

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