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p16

Basics

Aliases:
This biomarker is also known as:
  • MTS1,
  • p16INK4a,
  • CDKN2A,
  • Multiple tumor suppressor 1,
  • CDKN2,
  • INK4a,
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, isoforms 1/2/3,
  • INK4,
  • p19,
  • CMM2,
  • CDK4I,
  • p16-INK4a,
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor A,

View in BioMuta

Description…

The CDKN2A locus generates several transcript variants which differ in their first exons. Two distinct transcripts are produced from different promoters: p16 (INK4A) and p14 (ARF). At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported, two of which (p16 and p14) encode structurally related isoforms known to function as inhibitors of CDK4 kinase. The remaining transcript includes an alternate first exon located 20 Kb upstream of the remainder of the gene; this transcript contains an alternate open reading frame (ARF) that specifies a protein which is structurally unrelated to the products of the other variants. This ARF product functions as a stabilizer of the tumor suppressor protein p53 as it can interact with, and sequester, MDM1, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. In spite of the structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in cell cycle G1 control. This gene is frequently mutated or deleted in a wide variety of tumors, and is known to be an important tumor suppressor gene.

Attributes

QA State: Curated
Type: Genomic
Short Name:
HGNC Name: CDKN2A

Organs

The following organs have data associated with this biomarker…

Breast

Attributes

Phase: One
QA State: Under Review

Overview

No additional breast data available.

Performance Comment

CDKN2A (p16) was one of numerous potential early detection biomarkers specific to triple-negative breast cancer in multiple pathways identified.

Esophagus

Attributes

Phase: Two
QA State: Under Review

Overview

Esophageal adenocarcinoma risk in Barrett's esophagus is increased 30- to 125- fold versus the general population. Among all Barrett's esophagus patients neoplastic progression occurs only once per 200 patient-years. Molecular markers (individual or in panel) would be useful to risk-stratify patients for more efficient surveillance endoscopy and to improve the early detection of progression.

Performance Comment

p16, RUNX3, and TMEFF2 (HPP1) display increasing methylation frequencies in Barrett's esophagus versus esophageal adenocarcinoma. These markers are being further investigated for potential utility in screening Barrett's patients likely to develop esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Lung

Attributes

Phase: One
QA State: Under Review

Overview

Performance Comment

Prostate

Attributes

Phase: One
QA State: Under Review

Overview

Performance Comment

Studies

This biomarker is currently being annotated or is under review. You must be logged in or do not have permission to view any additional information. Contact Heather Kincaid at heather.kincaid@jpl.nasa.gov if you should have access to this biomarker.

New Funding Opportunity: Biomarker Development Laboratories for the Early Detection Network: Applications Due May 23

Update: Pre-application webinar information now available.

The National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Prevention has released a new funding opportunity to solicit organ-specific applications for Biomarker Developmental Laboratories (BDLs), one of the four scientific units of the recently funded Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). The EDRN is a national infrastructure funded to discover, develop, and validate biomarkers for risk assessment, detection, and molecular diagnosis and prognosis of early cancer. BDLs are responsible for the discovery, development, characterization, and testing of new, or the refinement of existing, biomarkers and biomarker assays for risk assessment, detection, and molecular diagnosis and prognosis of cancers.

The existing BDLs are primarily focused on ovary and gastrointestinal cancers. The proposed BDLs (to be supported under this funding opportunity) should be focused on one or more of the following cancers: breast, prostate and other genitourinary organs, or lung. In addition, cancers with rapidly rising incidence rates, e.g., endometrial, hepatocellular, kidney, thyroid, oropharyngeal cancers, and/or cancers with unique etiology, e.g., mesothelioma, will be considered.

The newly funded units of the Early Detection Research Network will be announced later in April. Successful applicants have already been notified. Those researchers who were not successful during the last round of applications are encouraged to apply to this opportunity.