Aliases:This biomarker is also known as:
AFP is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life. Alpha-fetoprotein expression in adults is often associated with hepatoma or teratoma. However, hereditary persistance of alpha-fetoprotein may also be found in individuals with no obvious pathology. The protein is thought to be the fetal counterpart of serum albumin, and the alpha-fetoprotein and albumin genes are present in tandem in the same transcriptional orientation on chromosome 4. Alpha-fetoprotein is found in monomeric as well as dimeric and trimeric forms, and binds copper, nickel, fatty acids and bilirubin.
There are no datasets associated with this biomarker.
The following organs have data associated with this biomarker…
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Since 90% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have underlying cirrhosis, patients with cirrhosis are candidates for HCC surveillance. Despite advances in medical technology, the 5-year survival of patients with HCC has improved minimally from 2% to 5% from 1981 to 1998. This may be largely due to diagnosis at late stage disease. These studies aim to compare the performance characteristics of the biomarkers AFP, DCP (des-gamma carboxyprothrombin) and AFP-L3 (lectin-bound AFP) in the early diagnosis of HCC.
AFP has been approved by the FDA as a component of lab test to diagnose the risk of developing liver cancer in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). The test measures levels of both AFP-L3 and AFP in the blood, and calculates AFP-L3 levels as a percentage of total AFP. Higher levels of AFP-L3 are associated with higher risk of developing liver cancer. According to the FDA, if the percentage of AFP-L3 is greater or equal to 10%, the risk is seven-fold that the patient will develop liver cancer in the next 21 months.
|QA State:||Under Review|
- A framework for evaluating biomarkers for early detection: validation of biomarker panels for ovarian cancer.
- Ovarian cancer biomarker performance in prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial specimens.
- Alpha-fetoprotein, des-gamma carboxyprothrombin, and lectin-bound alpha-fetoprotein in early hepatocellular carcinoma.
- Risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma may impair the performance of biomarkers: a comparison of AFP, DCP, and AFP-L3.
- FDA web page describing approval of AFP-L3
- HGNC entry 317 for AFP, human alpha-fetoprotein, of which AFP-L3 is an isoform
- KEGG entry 174 human alpha-fetoprotein
- Protein RefSeq sequence for human AFP, of which AFP-L3 is an isoform
- UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entry P02771 human alpha-fetoprotein, of which AFP-L3 is an isoform