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p16

Basics

Aliases:
This biomarker is also known as:
  • CDKN2,
  • MTS1,
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor A,
  • Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A, isoforms 1/2/3,
  • CDK4I,
  • INK4a,
  • p16INK4a,
  • INK4,
  • p16-INK4a,
  • Multiple tumor suppressor 1,
  • CDKN2A,
  • p19,
  • CMM2,

View in BioMuta

Description…

The CDKN2A locus generates several transcript variants which differ in their first exons. Two distinct transcripts are produced from different promoters: p16 (INK4A) and p14 (ARF). At least three alternatively spliced variants encoding distinct proteins have been reported, two of which (p16 and p14) encode structurally related isoforms known to function as inhibitors of CDK4 kinase. The remaining transcript includes an alternate first exon located 20 Kb upstream of the remainder of the gene; this transcript contains an alternate open reading frame (ARF) that specifies a protein which is structurally unrelated to the products of the other variants. This ARF product functions as a stabilizer of the tumor suppressor protein p53 as it can interact with, and sequester, MDM1, a protein responsible for the degradation of p53. In spite of the structural and functional differences, the CDK inhibitor isoforms and the ARF product encoded by this gene, through the regulatory roles of CDK4 and p53 in cell cycle G1 progression, share a common functionality in cell cycle G1 control. This gene is frequently mutated or deleted in a wide variety of tumors, and is known to be an important tumor suppressor gene.

Attributes

QA State: Curated
Type: Genomic
Short Name:
HGNC Name: CDKN2A

Organs

The following organs have data associated with this biomarker…

Breast

Attributes

Phase: One
QA State: Under Review

Overview

No additional breast data available.

Performance Comment

CDKN2A (p16) was one of numerous potential early detection biomarkers specific to triple-negative breast cancer in multiple pathways identified.

Esophagus

Attributes

Phase: Two
QA State: Under Review

Overview

Esophageal adenocarcinoma risk in Barrett's esophagus is increased 30- to 125- fold versus the general population. Among all Barrett's esophagus patients neoplastic progression occurs only once per 200 patient-years. Molecular markers (individual or in panel) would be useful to risk-stratify patients for more efficient surveillance endoscopy and to improve the early detection of progression.

Performance Comment

p16, RUNX3, and TMEFF2 (HPP1) display increasing methylation frequencies in Barrett's esophagus versus esophageal adenocarcinoma. These markers are being further investigated for potential utility in screening Barrett's patients likely to develop esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Lung

Attributes

Phase: One
QA State: Under Review

Overview

Performance Comment

Prostate

Attributes

Phase: One
QA State: Under Review

Overview

Performance Comment

Studies

This biomarker is currently being annotated or is under review. You must be logged in or do not have permission to view any additional information. Contact Heather Kincaid at heather.kincaid@jpl.nasa.gov if you should have access to this biomarker.

Announcement 11/20/2014

New Round of EDRN FOAs

The RFAs for EDRN have been released:
- Biomarker Developmental Laboratories (U01),
- Clinical Validation Centers (U01),
- Biomarker Reference Laboratories (U24),
- Data Management and Coordinating Center (U24).

EDRN Renewal flyer NOTE-New receipt deadline for applications submitted for all EDRN FOAs is January 20, 2015, by 5:00 PM local time of applicant organization.

There will be a Pre-Application webinar to discuss each of the four individual EDRN FOAs on Tuesday, December 2nd, 2014, from 1pm-5pm (Eastern). Potential applicants interested in participating in the webinar should send a message to Dr. Sharmistha Ghosh (ghoshjanjigias@mail.nih.gov) no later than 5:00 p.m. (EST) November 21, 2014. Please mention the FOA of interest in the subject line.

Announcement 10/07/2014

EDRN Patient Advocates will host an EDRN Advocacy Educational Webinar, Biomarkers for Prostate Cancer Detection and Monitoring, on Monday, January 12th, 2015, at 1 p.m. EDT / 10 a.m. PDT. Registration is not required for this. Please click for more information.