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AFP

Basics

Aliases:
This biomarker is also known as:
  • OTTHUMP00000160480,
  • Alpha-1-fetoprotein,
  • FETA,
  • HP,
  • HPAFP,
  • Alpha-fetoprotein,
  • Alpha-fetoglobulin,

View in BioMuta

Description…

AFP is a major plasma protein produced by the yolk sac and the liver during fetal life. Alpha-fetoprotein expression in adults is often associated with hepatoma or teratoma. However, hereditary persistance of alpha-fetoprotein may also be found in individuals with no obvious pathology. The protein is thought to be the fetal counterpart of serum albumin, and the alpha-fetoprotein and albumin genes are present in tandem in the same transcriptional orientation on chromosome 4. Alpha-fetoprotein is found in monomeric as well as dimeric and trimeric forms, and binds copper, nickel, fatty acids and bilirubin.

Attributes

QA State: Curated
Type: Protein
Short Name:
HGNC Name: AFP

Datasets

There are no datasets associated with this biomarker.

Organs

The following organs have data associated with this biomarker…

Breast

Attributes

Phase: One
QA State: Curated

Overview

No additional data available.

Performance Comment

Ninety biomarkers were measured using a series of multiplexed immunoassays and results analyzed by the EDRN data management center splitting the cases and controls into training and validation sets, excluding subjects with DCIS or atypical hyperplasia from the training phase. We found little evidence that any of these markers can discriminate women with invasive cancer from those with benign breast conditions.

Liver

Attributes

Phase: Three
QA State: Under Review

Overview

Since 90% of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have underlying cirrhosis, patients with cirrhosis are candidates for HCC surveillance. Despite advances in medical technology, the 5-year survival of patients with HCC has improved minimally from 2% to 5% from 1981 to 1998. This may be largely due to diagnosis at late stage disease. These studies aim to compare the performance characteristics of the biomarkers AFP, DCP (des-gamma carboxyprothrombin) and AFP-L3 (lectin-bound AFP) in the early diagnosis of HCC.

Performance Comment

AFP has been approved by the FDA as a component of lab test to diagnose the risk of developing liver cancer in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD). The test measures levels of both AFP-L3 and AFP in the blood, and calculates AFP-L3 levels as a percentage of total AFP. Higher levels of AFP-L3 are associated with higher risk of developing liver cancer. According to the FDA, if the percentage of AFP-L3 is greater or equal to 10%, the risk is seven-fold that the patient will develop liver cancer in the next 21 months.

Ovary

Attributes

Phase: Three
QA State: Under Review

Overview

Performance Comment

Studies

This biomarker is currently being annotated or is under review. You must be logged in or do not have permission to view any additional information. Contact Heather Kincaid at heather.kincaid@jpl.nasa.gov if you should have access to this biomarker.

New Funding Opportunity: Biomarker Development Laboratories for the Early Detection Network: Applications Due May 23

Update: Pre-application webinar information now available.

The National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Prevention has released a new funding opportunity to solicit organ-specific applications for Biomarker Developmental Laboratories (BDLs), one of the four scientific units of the recently funded Early Detection Research Network (EDRN). The EDRN is a national infrastructure funded to discover, develop, and validate biomarkers for risk assessment, detection, and molecular diagnosis and prognosis of early cancer. BDLs are responsible for the discovery, development, characterization, and testing of new, or the refinement of existing, biomarkers and biomarker assays for risk assessment, detection, and molecular diagnosis and prognosis of cancers.

The existing BDLs are primarily focused on ovary and gastrointestinal cancers. The proposed BDLs (to be supported under this funding opportunity) should be focused on one or more of the following cancers: breast, prostate and other genitourinary organs, or lung. In addition, cancers with rapidly rising incidence rates, e.g., endometrial, hepatocellular, kidney, thyroid, oropharyngeal cancers, and/or cancers with unique etiology, e.g., mesothelioma, will be considered.

The newly funded units of the Early Detection Research Network will be announced later in April. Successful applicants have already been notified. Those researchers who were not successful during the last round of applications are encouraged to apply to this opportunity.